The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was established in 1947 with the signing of the National Security Act by President Harry S. Truman. This was a response to the need for better [[intelligence]] during the [[World War II Timeline]], and the CIA replaced the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), which was disbanded after the war. The CIA is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT). ## CIA organization and structure The CIA is organized into several directorates: 1. **The Directorate of Analysis**: Responsible for analyzing the collected intelligence and presenting objective reports to U.S policymakers. 2. **The Directorate of Operations**: Tasked with collecting foreign intelligence, and is often what people think of when they imagine the work of the CIA: spies and covert operations. 3. **The Directorate of Science and Technology**: Develops and applies innovative technologies to support the intelligence collection and analysis efforts. 4. **The Directorate of Support**: Provides the mission-critical operations such as communications, security, and logistics. 5. **The Directorate of Digital Innovation**: The newest directorate, established in 2015 to accelerate the integration of advanced digital and cyber capabilities into the Agency's espionage mission. ## CIA leadership The CIA is headed by a Director, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the [[Senate]]. The Director of the CIA (D/CIA) serves as the head of the CIA and reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who is the head of the Intelligence Community (a federation of government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities). ## Operations and controversies Over its history, the CIA has been involved in various foreign interventions, covert operations, and espionage activities. Some of these activities have been controversial and the subject of public debate and criticism, such as the alleged involvement in regime changes and assassinations. The CIA also has a history of research in mind control and torture, as revealed by projects like MK-Ultra in the 1950s and '60s, and more recently in what was known as the "Torture Report," which detailed harsh interrogation techniques used after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. For operational security reasons, a large amount of the CIA's work remains classified and is not disclosed to the public.