The Confederate States of America (CSA) was an unrecognized entity of seceded states in the southern region of the United States, whose secession precipitated the [[Civil War]]. The Confederates were a group of eleven Southern states in the United States that seceded from the Union between 1860 and 1861. The secession was primarily driven by the states' desire to maintain the institution of [[slavery]], as well as perceived threats to states' rights and the Southern way of life. This secession led to the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865. ## 11 Confederate states 1. South Carolina 2. Mississippi 3. Florida 4. Alabama 5. Georgia 6. Louisiana 7. Texas 8. Virginia 9. Arkansas 10. Tennessee 11. North Carolina The Confederacy was established on February 4, 1861, and its government was modeled after the United States [[Constitution]], with a few key differences. The Confederate Constitution explicitly protected the institution of [[slavery]] and gave states more autonomy, including the ability to impeach federally appointed officials. [[Jefferson Davis]], a former U.S. Senator from Mississippi, was elected as the first and only President of the Confederate States of America. Richmond, Virginia, served as the capital of the Confederacy for most of the war, though it moved to Danville, Virginia, in the final days of the conflict. ## Slavery and the Civil War The Confederate economy was primarily agrarian and heavily dependent on slave labor. The Confederacy struggled with [[inflation]], a lack of industrial infrastructure, and an ineffective transportation system, which made supplying its armies difficult. The American Civil War was a brutal and bloody conflict, resulting in more than 600,000 deaths. Ultimately, the Confederate forces were defeated by the Union armies, and the Confederate states were reintegrated into the United States. The war ended with General Robert E. Lee's surrender to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. This surrender was followed by the capitulation of other Confederate forces in the subsequent weeks and months, and the assassination of victorious President [[Abraham Lincoln]] by Confederate-sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. ## Thirteenth Amendment The end of the Civil War marked the abolition of [[slavery]] in the United States with the ratification of the [[13th Amendment]] to the U.S. Constitution in December 1865. The Confederate states underwent a process called [[Reconstruction]], which aimed to rebuild the war-torn South and establish political, social, and economic rights for the newly freed African Americans. This process was marked by significant tensions and conflicts between the former Confederates, Radical Republicans, and freedmen, leading to the implementation and eventual end of Reconstruction policies in 1877. The legacy of the Confederacy remains a controversial and divisive topic in the United States today. Some view the Confederacy as a symbol of Southern heritage and states' rights, while others see it as a representation of slavery, [racism](, and [[white supremacy]]. This has led to ongoing debates over the display and removal of Confederate monuments, symbols, and memorabilia in public spaces, as well as the continued use of the Confederate flag in various contexts. In recent years, there has been a growing movement to reevaluate the role of the Confederacy in American history and to confront its legacy of slavery and racial [[discrimination]]. This has led to a broader conversation about race, history, and the ways in which the United States can reckon with and address its past. See also: [[Reconstruction Timeline]], [[Jim Crow]], [[Civil Rights Act]], [[Southern Baptist]], [[✳️ Companies and Orgs Home]]