The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the principal federal investigative agency and a member of the U.S. [[intelligence]] community. Its mission is to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners. 1. **Early years (1908-1924)**: The FBI was created on July 26, 1908, by Attorney General Charles Bonaparte during the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. It was originally named the Bureau of Investigation (BOI) and had a small staff of 34 agents and support personnel. In its early years, the BOI focused on investigating violations of federal laws, including antitrust, land fraud, and [[bankruptcy]] cases. 2. **J. Edgar Hoover era (1924-1972)**: In 1924, [[J. Edgar Hoover]] was appointed as the director of the BOI, a position he held for 48 years until his death in 1972. During his tenure, Hoover oversaw significant changes, including the establishment of a national fingerprint database and a forensic laboratory. The BOI was renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. Under Hoover, the FBI expanded its role in domestic intelligence, monitoring political dissidents and suspected subversives, most notably during [the Cold War](https://doctorparadox.net/dictionaries/cold-war-dictionary/). 3. **Post-Hoover era and modernization (1972-2001)**: After Hoover's death, the FBI underwent a series of reforms aimed at increasing transparency and accountability. This period saw the introduction of new technologies and an expansion of the FBI's jurisdiction to include terrorism, organized crime, and white-collar crime. In 1978, the [[Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)]], allowing the FBI to conduct electronic surveillance in national security investigations. 4. **Post-9/11 era (2001-present)**: The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, marked a major shift in the FBI's focus, as the agency pivoted towards counterterrorism and intelligence gathering. The USA PATRIOT Act, passed in 2001, significantly expanded the FBI's powers to investigate and prevent terrorism. The FBI also increased its collaboration with other federal agencies and international partners. In recent years, the FBI has faced challenges related to cybersecurity, domestic terrorism, and civil liberties concerns. Throughout its history, the FBI has evolved in response to the nation's changing security needs, becoming a crucial part of the U.S. law enforcement and intelligence infrastructure.