Climate change refers to significant, long-term shifts in global or regional climate patterns, primarily due to increased greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. The most notable greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2), but others include methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. These gases trap heat in the Earth's atmosphere, leading to a gradual increase in average global temperatures. The primary human activities contributing to climate change are the burning of fossil fuels for energy production, deforestation, and industrial processes, which release large amounts of greenhouse gases. In addition to these, agricultural practices, land use changes, and waste management contribute to the problem as well. ## Consequences of climate change 1. **Rising temperatures**: Increasing global average temperatures can lead to more frequent and intense heatwaves, which can cause heat stress and crop failures. 2. **Melting ice and rising sea levels**: As glaciers and polar ice caps melt, sea levels rise, causing coastal erosion, flooding, and damage to coastal ecosystems and infrastructure. 3. **Changes in precipitation patterns**: Climate change can lead to more frequent and severe storms, floods, and droughts, impacting agriculture, water resources, and infrastructure. 4. **Ocean acidification**: Increased atmospheric CO2 dissolves in seawater, making it more acidic. This negatively affects marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs and shellfish populations. 5. **Loss of biodiversity**: Changing temperatures and precipitation patterns can disrupt ecosystems, causing species extinctions and the collapse of food webs. 6. **Human health**: Climate change can exacerbate health issues, such as heat-related illnesses, respiratory problems, and the spread of infectious diseases. Addressing climate change requires global cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, transition to cleaner energy sources, and adapt to the impacts that are already occurring. This includes improving energy efficiency, investing in renewable energy, promoting sustainable land use, and developing strategies to increase resilience to climate-related hazards.