Antisemitism is a form of [[discrimination]], [[prejudice]], [bigotry](https://doctorparadox.net/psychology/bigotry-is-bad-thinking/), or hostility directed against Jewish people. It has a long and complex history, dating back thousands of years, and has taken on many different forms throughout time. Antisemitism can be based on religious, social, economic, or racial grounds, and has been perpetuated by both individuals and institutions.
1. **Ancient and early history**: Antisemitism can be traced back to ancient times when Jews were often subjected to discrimination and persecution. In the Hellenistic-Roman period, Jews faced hostility for their alleged unwillingness to adopt the dominant culture and religion. The destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE and the subsequent exile of Jews from their homeland further exacerbated these tensions.
2. **Middle Ages**: During the Middle Ages, Jews in Europe faced numerous instances of persecution, including expulsions, massacres, and forced conversions. The Crusades, [blood libel](https://doctorparadox.net/dictionaries/authoritarianism/blood-libel/) accusations, and the Black Death were all catalysts for increased antisemitism. Jews were also frequently segregated into ghettos and subjected to various restrictions on their rights.
3. **Modern era**: In the 19th and early 20th centuries, a new form of antisemitism emerged that was based on pseudoscientific theories of race. This racial antisemitism laid the groundwork for [[The Holocaust]], during which six million Jews were systematically murdered by the [[Nazis]] in Germany and their collaborators. Nazi ideology also positied a derivative of the [global cabal theory](https://doctorparadox.net/dictionaries/american-fascism/global-cabal/) originated during the 18th century Illuminati conspiracy, this time claiming that Jews were the secretive cabal controlling the world behind the scenes.
4. **Post-Holocaust**: Following World War II and the Holocaust, antisemitism decreased in Europe, but it persisted and evolved in other forms. In the Middle East, tensions between Israel and its Arab neighbors have contributed to the spread of antisemitic sentiments. Additionally, some far-right and far-left political groups continue to perpetuate antisemitic [conspiracy theories](https://doctorparadox.net/why-do-people-believe-conspiracy-theories/), stereotypes, and [bigotry](https://doctorparadox.net/psychology/bigotry-is-bad-thinking/).
5. **Contemporary antisemitism**: In recent years, there has been a resurgence of antisemitism around the world, with an increase in [[hate crimes]], online harassment, and [[discrimination]] against Jews. This resurgence is fueled by a variety of factors, including political [extremism](https://doctorparadox.net/psychology/extremism/), economic instability, and the rise of [[social media]] as a platform for spreading hate.
## Combatting antisemitism
Efforts to combat antisemitism include legal measures, educational programs, interfaith dialogues, and community-based initiatives that promote tolerance and understanding. It is important to recognize and address antisemitism in all its forms to ensure the safety and dignity of Jewish people worldwide.