Genocide is the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group. Coined by Raphael Lemkin in 1944, the term is derived from the Greek word "genos," meaning race or tribe, and the Latin word "cide," meaning killing. Genocide is considered one of the most severe crimes against humanity and is prohibited under international law. Several historical instances of genocide have taken place throughout history. Some of the most well-known cases include: 1. **[[The Holocaust]] (1941-1945)**: The systematic [[dehumanization]] and extermination of around six million Jews, along with millions of other minority groups, by the [[Nazis]] in Germany during the [[World War II Timeline]]. 2. **The Armenian Genocide (1915-1923)**: The mass killings and deportations of around 1.5 million Armenians by the Ottoman Empire during [[World War I]]. 3. **The Rwandan Genocide (1994)**: The ethnic cleansing of the Tutsi minority by the Hutu majority in Rwanda, resulting in the deaths of approximately 800,000 people within 100 days. 4. **The Cambodian Genocide (1975-1979)**: The Khmer Rouge regime, led by Pol Pot, killed an estimated 1.7 million people (around 21% of the population) in an effort to create a utopian communist society. 5. **The Bosnian Genocide (1992-1995)**: During the Bosnian War, Bosnian Serb forces, led by General Ratko Mladić, carried out ethnic cleansing campaigns against Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim) and Croat populations, culminating in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre. These are just a few examples of genocidal acts throughout history. Genocide can take various forms, including mass killings, forced deportations, torture, forced assimilation, rape, and the deliberate infliction of conditions designed to bring about the physical destruction of a group. Efforts to prevent and punish genocide have been established through international law, such as the 1948 [[United Nations]] Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This convention defines genocide and obligates member states to prevent and punish the crime. Despite these efforts, genocide remains a challenge to international peace and security, and preventing future genocides requires global awareness, cooperation, and intervention.