Racial segregation in the United States has a long and complex history, with many instances of separation, [bigotry](https://doctorparadox.net/psychology/bigotry-is-bad-thinking/), and [[discrimination]] based on race or ethnicity. Here's an overview of racial segregation in the U.S.: 1. **Early segregation**: Before the [[Civil War]], racial [[segregation]] was prevalent in the form of [[slavery]], which primarily affected African Americans. Slaves were forcibly brought from Africa to work in the colonies and, later, the United States. They were considered property, with no rights or freedoms. 2. **Post-Civil War and [[Reconstruction]]**: Following the [[Civil War]] and the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, which respectively abolished slavery, granted citizenship to former slaves, and provided voting rights for African American men, the period of the [[Reconstruction Timeline]]. During this time, African Americans made significant political and social gains. However, these advances were met with resistance from believers in [[white supremacy]] as well as formally from Southern states. 3. **[[Jim Crow]] laws**: In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Southern states implemented a series of discriminatory laws and practices known as Jim Crow laws. These laws enforced racial segregation in public spaces, such as schools, transportation, and recreational facilities. They also established the "[[separate but equal]]" doctrine, which allowed for racial segregation as long as separate facilities were ostensibly equal in quality. 4. **Great Migration**: Between 1916 and 1970, millions of African Americans migrated from the rural South to Northern and Western cities in search of better opportunities and an escape from racial oppression. This movement, known as the Great Migration, led to increased racial segregation in urban areas as African Americans often settled in racially homogenous neighborhoods due to discrimination in housing and limited economic opportunities. 5. **Civil Rights Movement**: The Civil Rights Movement emerged in the mid-20th century as a response to racial segregation and discrimination. Activists used various strategies, including nonviolent protest, grassroots organizing, and legal action, to challenge segregation and advocate for equal rights. Landmark legislation, such as the [[Civil Rights Act]] of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, was enacted to dismantle segregationist policies and practices and establish [[civil rights]] for African Americans. 6. **Desegregation efforts**: [[Brown v. Board of Education]] (1954) was a pivotal decision by [[The Supreme Court]]decision that declared racial segregation in public schools un[[constitution]]al, effectively overturning the "[[separate but equal]]" doctrine. Following this decision, desegregation efforts took place across the country, although progress was slow and often met with resistance. 7. **Contemporary issues**: Despite legal advances, racial segregation and disparities persist in various aspects of American society, such as housing, education, and employment. De facto [[segregation]], which occurs without explicit legal enforcement, remains a challenge. Ongoing efforts to address these issues involve promoting diversity, equity, and inclusion in various sectors and fighting against systemic [racism](https://doctorparadox.net/category/psychology/racism/) and [[discrimination]].