The American Revolutionary War, also known as the American War of Independence, was a conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its North American colonies that had declared themselves the independent United States of America. The war took place from 1775 to 1783 and led to the establishment of the United States as a separate nation.
## Revolutionary War causes
The war's roots can be traced back to several factors, including the colonies' growing dissatisfaction with British rule, increasing taxation, and the lack of colonial representation in the British Parliament. Key events that contributed to the escalation of tensions include the Stamp Act (1765), the Townshend Acts (1767), the Boston Massacre (1770), the Boston Tea Party (1773), and the Intolerable Acts (1774).
Armed conflict began in April 1775 with the Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts. The Second Continental Congress convened in May 1775, assuming responsibility for coordinating the colonial war effort. Initially, the colonists fought for their rights as British subjects, but the conflict soon evolved into a struggle for independence.
## Declaration of Independence
On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted the [Declaration of Independence](https://doctorparadox.net/save-democracy/declaration-of-independence/), written primarily by [[Thomas Jefferson]]. This document formally declared the colonies' separation from Britain and listed their grievances against King George III.
## Key battles and alliances
The war featured several notable battles and campaigns, such as the Battle of Bunker Hill (1775), the Battle of Saratoga (1777), and the Siege of Yorktown (1781). The Battle of Saratoga was particularly significant, as it convinced France to enter the war as an ally of the United States.
The entry of France into the war in 1778 was crucial to the American cause, providing much-needed military and financial support. Spain and the Dutch Republic also joined the conflict against Britain, complicating the British war effort and stretching their resources thin.
## End of the war and Treaty of Paris
The Siege of Yorktown in 1781 proved to be the last major battle of the war, with General Charles Cornwallis surrendering to American and French forces led by General George Washington. After two more years of negotiations, the Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783, formally recognizing the United States' independence and establishing its borders.
The American Revolutionary War had far-reaching consequences for both the United States and the wider world. It marked the beginning of the United States as an independent nation, setting the stage for the drafting of the U.S. [[Constitution]] and the establishment of the country's democratic system of government. Additionally, the war influenced other independence movements, such as those in Latin America, and reshaped the global balance of power.