The New Deal was a series of economic policies and programs implemented by the United States government between 1933 and 1939 in response to the Great Depression. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's signature economic policy was designed to address the widespread poverty, unemployment, and economic insecurity that had resulted from the stock market crash of 1929 and subsequent economic downturn -- the worst the U.S. had ever seen.
The New Deal was launched by FDR after taking office in March 1933. The programs included measures to provide relief to unemployed workers, stimulate economic growth, and reform the financial system to prevent future economic crises. The policy was heavily influenced by Keynesian economics, a new theoretical model that positied a positive role for the government to play in managing the money supply and economy.
## Major New Deal initiatives
- **The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)**, which provided employment for young men in conservation and public works projects.
- **The Works Progress Administration (WPA)**, which created jobs in construction and infrastructure projects.
- **The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)**, which established codes of fair competition for businesses and labor unions.
- **The Social Security Act**, which provided a system of retirement benefits for workers.
The New Deal also included measures to regulate the banking system and stock market, such as the creation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
While the New Deal was controversial at the time, and some of its programs were criticized as too costly or ineffective, it had a significant impact on the U.S. economy and society. It helped to alleviate some of the worst effects of the Great Depression and laid the groundwork for many social and economic programs that continue to shape American life today.