Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States, serving from 1933 until his death in 1945. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential presidents in American history, having led the country through [[The Great Depression]] and the [[World War II Timeline]]. ## Early life and career Franklin D. Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in Hyde Park, New York, to James Roosevelt and Sara Ann Delano. Coming from a wealthy and prominent family, FDR enjoyed a privileged upbringing. He was educated at home by private tutors before attending the prestigious Groton School in Massachusetts. He later studied at Harvard University, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in history in 1903. In 1905, Roosevelt married his distant cousin, Eleanor Roosevelt, with whom he would have six children. He continued his education at Columbia Law School but left without completing his degree when he passed the New York State Bar Exam in 1907. FDR's political career began in 1910 when he was elected as a New York State Senator, running as a Democrat. In 1913, President Woodrow Wilson appointed him as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, a role he held until 1920. During this period, he gained valuable experience in administration, logistics, and labor relations. In 1920, FDR was chosen as the Democratic vice presidential candidate alongside presidential nominee James M. Cox. They lost the election to Republican candidates Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. A year later, Roosevelt contracted polio, which left him permanently paralyzed from the waist down. Despite his disability, he remained active in politics and established the Warm Springs Foundation in Georgia to help others suffering from polio. ## Governor of New York In 1928, FDR was elected Governor of New York, where he implemented progressive policies to address the state's social and economic problems. His success in managing the state's response to [[The Great Depression]] led to his nomination as the Democratic presidential candidate in 1932. ## Presidency Roosevelt was elected president in 1932, defeating incumbent Herbert Hoover. FDR took office during the height of the Great Depression, and he implemented a series of ambitious policies known as [[The New Deal]]. The New Deal included a wide range of programs designed to provide relief, recovery, and reform, such as the Social Security Act, the Civilian Conservation Corps, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. FDR's leadership during the Depression helped restore confidence in the American government and economy. He was re-elected in 1936, 1940, and 1944, becoming the only president to serve more than two terms. ## World War II (1939-1945) As World War II broke out in Europe in 1939, FDR faced a challenge in balancing American [[isolationist]] sentiments and the need to support the Allies against the Axis powers. Initially, the United States pursued a policy of neutrality, but FDR's actions indicated his belief in the importance of supporting the Allies. In 1940, he enacted the [[Lend-Lease Act]], which provided vital military supplies to the United Kingdom, Soviet Union, China, and other countries fighting against the [[Nazis]] in Germany, [[Benito Mussolini]] and the fascists of Italy, and the [authoritarian]( government of Japan. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked the U.S. naval base at [[Pearl Harbor]], Hawaii. This event shocked the American public and led FDR to deliver his famous "Infamy Speech" the following day, declaring war on Japan. Germany and Italy subsequently declared war on the U.S., marking America's official entry into World War II. ### Mobilization for WWII (1941-1945) FDR oversaw a massive mobilization of the U.S. economy and military. He established numerous agencies to manage wartime production, rationing, and price controls, such as the War Production Board and the Office of Price Administration. The U.S. economy shifted from civilian to military production, and millions of Americans enlisted or were drafted into the armed forces. As a key leader of the Allies, FDR worked closely with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin to develop a unified strategy against the Axis powers. Major conferences took place in Casablanca, Tehran, and Yalta, where the leaders discussed military tactics, post-war planning, and the establishment of the [[United Nations]]. ### D-Day and road to victory (1944-1945) On June 6, 1944, FDR supported the Allied invasion of Normandy, known as D-Day. This massive operation, led by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, marked the beginning of the end for Nazi Germany. FDR's leadership played a crucial role in maintaining the alliance between the U.S., U.K., and Soviet Union, which ultimately led to the defeat of the Axis powers in 1945. ## Death and legacy (1945) Tragically, FDR did not live to see the end of the war. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945, just weeks before Germany's surrender. Vice President Harry S. Truman succeeded him as President. FDR's leadership during World War II solidified his legacy as one of America's greatest presidents. His ability to forge and maintain strong alliances, oversee a massive wartime mobilization, and make critical strategic decisions contributed to the eventual victory over the Axis powers. His vision of a post-war world led to the establishment of the United Nations, which has played a significant role in maintaining global peace and security since its inception.