Rupert Murdoch (born March 11, 1931) is an Australian-born American media mogul and billionaire who founded and serves as the executive chairman of News Corporation, one of the world's largest media conglomerates. Throughout his career, Murdoch has significantly influenced the media landscape, particularly in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ## Early life and career Keith Rupert Murdoch was born in Melbourne, Australia, to Sir Keith Murdoch, a prominent journalist, and Elisabeth Murdoch. He was educated at Geelong Grammar School and later attended Worcester College, Oxford, where he studied philosophy, politics, and economics. After his father's death in 1952, Murdoch inherited a small newspaper business in Adelaide, which included the Adelaide News. He expanded this business into a larger media empire, acquiring numerous newspapers and media properties in Australia, including the Sydney-based Daily Mirror and The Australian, the country's first national daily newspaper. In the late 1960s, Murdoch began to expand his media empire beyond Australia, acquiring the British tabloid News of the World and later, The Sun. He went on to purchase The Times and The Sunday Times in 1981. With Murdoch at the helm, these newspapers became known for their sensationalist journalism and [[conservative]] political stance, significantly impacting British media and politics. ## Expansion into the US Murdoch entered the American media market in the 1970s, acquiring the San Antonio Express-News and later the New York Post. In the 1980s, he established News Corporation in the United States and acquired several television stations, which eventually formed the basis of the Fox Broadcasting Company, launched in 1986. In 1985, Murdoch became a naturalized U.S. citizen, a requirement for owning U.S. television stations. ## Fox News Channel and 21st Century Fox In 1996, Murdoch launched [[Fox News]] Channel, a conservative cable news network, with the help of [[Roger Ailes]]. The channel became a ratings success and a significant influence on conservative politics in the United States. In 2013, News Corporation was split into two separate companies: News Corp, focusing on newspapers and publishing, and 21st Century Fox, focusing on television and film. Murdoch served as the executive chairman of both companies. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired most of 21st Century Fox's assets, and the remaining assets were reorganized into a new company called Fox Corporation, with Murdoch still serving as the executive chairman. ## Controversies Murdoch's media empire has faced multiple controversies over the years, including accusations of monopolistic practices and unethical journalistic practices. One notable scandal was the 2011 News of the World phone hacking scandal, which led to the closure of the newspaper and raised questions about the ethics and practices of Murdoch's media holdings. ## Personal life Rupert Murdoch has been married four times. His first marriage was to Patricia Booker in 1956, with whom he had a daughter, Prudence. They divorced in 1967. Murdoch then married Anna Torv in 1967, and they had three children together: Elisabeth, Lachlan, and James. The couple divorced in 1999. In 1999, Murdoch married Wendi Deng, and they had two daughters, Grace and Chloe. Murdoch and Deng divorced in 2013. In 2016, Murdoch married his current wife, Jerry Hall.